Sources for Brough Castle

This section provides a guide to the documentary and printed sources for the further study of Brough Castle.

Engraving of Brough Castle in 1739 by Samuel and Nathaniel Buck in 1739. The glass and roofs have gone and the stables have disappeared but most of the walls still stand to their full height

Engraving of Brough Castle in 1739 by Samuel and Nathaniel Buck in 1739. The glass and roofs have gone and the stables have disappeared but most of the walls still stand to their full height

Primary Sources

Cumbria Archive Service (Carlisle Archive Centre and Kendal Archive Centre)

The Hothfield/Thanet papers, held by the Cumbria Archive Service, include the greater part of the Clifford family archives.

The collection includes Lady Anne Clifford’s three ‘Greate Books of Record’ – her compilations of Clifford family history, which represent the largest manuscript source on the family from the Middle Ages to her parents’ time.

  • Kendal Archive Centre, Great Books of Record: three volumes of Veteripont and Clifford family history and transcripts of records, compiled and written for Lady Anne Clifford, with annotations in her own hand, and continued with a summary of her own life up to her death in 1676, WDHOTH/1/10, c1649–52 [bound volumes].

Her account books, to judge by Henry Summerson's work on Brougham Castle (Summerson, Trueman and Harrison, 1998), are likely to have evidence for work at Brough as well.

  • Kendal Archive Centre, MS Account Book, WDY 404, 1665–8 [photocopy of transcribed extracts]
  • Carlisle Archive Centre, MS T95/5, Account Book, c 1669–73.

The collection also includes extensive account books for the 18th and 19th centuries:

  • Kendal Archive Centre, MS WD/D/H
  • Carlisle Archive Centre, Thanet stewardship papers.

The antiquary Thomas Machell’s 17th-century survey drawing and plan of Brough Castle are in:

  • Carlisle Archive Centre, records of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle Cathedral, MS Machell I, fols 392–6.

The National Archives

The National Archives have files relating to the Ministry of Works’ guardianship of the castle and the repairs carried out to it:

  • WORK 14/582, finds, 1924–32
  • WORK 14/1403, works, 1919–56
  • WORK 14/1520, guardianship and legal arrangements, 1919–56
  • WORK 31/915, general survey, 1919
  • WORK 31/2036, site plan, 1934.

Material Sources

There are assemblages of finds from Brough Castle in a number of museums. The British Museum has a hoard of Roman coins, found at Brough in 1786 and subsequently acquired by Henry Ecroyd-Smith before being left by him to the museum.

There are also metal objects found at Brough in Tullie House Museum, Carlisle. The Craven Museum and Art Gallery, Skipton, holds a group of six Roman pots excavated at Brough.

Visual Sources

Thomas Machell, sketch of the castle and plan, late 17th century, Carlisle Archive Centre, Manuscripts of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle, MS Machell 1, fols 392–6

Samuel and Nathaniel Buck, engraving, 1739

Frances Grose, engraving in The Antiquities of England and Wales, 1785, 20

Secondary Sources

Anon, ‘The Brough inscription, reprinted from the Athenaeum of 22 Nov 1884’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, old series, 8 (1886), 171–3

Birley, E, ‘Roman pottery from Brough’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 34 (1934), 217

Birley, E, ‘Excavations at Brough-under-Stainmore’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 55 (1956), 319–20

Birley, E, ‘The Roman fort of Brough under Stainmore’, Archaeological Journal, 115 (1958), 237 [accessed 4 January 2015]

Birley, E, ‘The Roman fort at Brough-under-Stainmore’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 58 (1959), 31–56

Brown, RA, Colvin, HM and Taylor, AJ, The History of the King's Works, vol 2: The Middle Ages (London, 1963), 582

Camden, W, Britannia (London, 1586; trans. and rev. by E Gibson, London, 1722), vol 2, 990

Charlton, J, Brough Castle (Department of the Environment guidebook, 1986)

Clark, EC, ‘The Brough Stone’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, old series, 8 (1885), 205–19

Clark, GT, ‘The castles of Brougham and Brough’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, old series, 6 (1882), 15–37

Clifford, DJH (ed), The Diaries of Lady Anne Clifford (Stroud, 1990) [accessed 4 January 2015]

Clifford, H, The House of Clifford (Andover, 1987)

Collingwood, RG, ‘Objects from Brough-under-Stainmore in the Craven Museum, Skipton’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 31 (1931), 81–4

Cowen, J, ‘A Celtic sword-pommel at Tullie House’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 37 (1937), 67–71

Curwen, JF, ‘Brough Castle’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 9 (1909), 177–91

Dickens, AG (ed), Clifford Letters of the 16th Century, Surtees Society 172 (Durham, 1962) [includes a long extract from Lady Anne Clifford's Summary of the Lives of the Veteteriponts and Cliffords]

Ecroyd Smith, H, ‘Some interesting features of a neglected Roman station, Brough-under-Stainmoor’, Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, new series, 6 (1866), 137–52

Haverfield, F, ‘The Brough idol’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, old series, 11 (1890), 296–9

Haverfield, F, ‘Roman inscribed stones from Brough’, Ephemeris Epigraphica, 7 (1892)

Hearn, K and Hulse, L (eds), Lady Anne Clifford: Culture, Patronage and Gender in 17th-century Britain, Yorkshire Archaeological Society Occasional Paper 7 (Leeds, 2009)

Hildyard, E, ‘An enamelled fibula from Brough-under-Stainmore’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 55 (1956), 54–8

Holmes, M, Proud Northern Lady: Lady Anne Clifford 1590–1676 (Andover, 1975)

Howlett, R (ed), ‘Chronique de Jordan Fantosme’, Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages, Rolls Series 3 (London, 1886), 326–31

Jones, M, et al, ‘Archaeological work at Brough under Stainmore 1971–2, Part 1’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 77 (1977), 17–47

Jones, M, et al, ‘Archaeological work at Brough under Stainmore 1971–2, Part 2’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 89 (1986), 141–80

Richmond, IA, ‘Roman leaden sealings from Brough-under-Stainmore’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 36 (1936), 104–25

Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, Westmorland (London, 1936)

Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, ‘The castle and Roman fort at Brough, Cumbria’, Archaeological Survey Report (Swindon, 1996)

Scarth, HM, ‘On a funereal stone inscribed with Greek hexameters discovered at Brough-under-Stanemore, Westmorland, in restoring the church, AD 1879’, Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 41 (1886), 294–9

Simms, RS, ‘The medieval castle’, Archaeological Journal, 95 (1958), 237–8 [accessed 4 January 2015]

Simpson, WD, ‘Brough under Stainmore: the castle and the church’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 46 (1946), 223–83

Simpson, WG, ‘A medieval arrowhead from Brough-under-Stainmore’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 56 (1957), 1–9

Spence, RT, The Shepherd Lord of Skipton Castle: Henry, 10th Lord Clifford, 1454–1523 (Skipton, 1994)

Spence, RT, Lady Anne Clifford (Stroud, 1997)

Stephens, G, ‘A runic inscription found at Brough, date about 550-600’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, old series, 5 (1881), 241, 310

Summerson, HRT, Trueman, M and Harrison, S, Brougham Castle, Cumbria: A Survey and Documentary History, Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society Research Series 8 (Kendal, 1998)

Summerson, HRT, Brougham and Brough Castles (English Heritage guidebook, London, 1999) [buy the guidebook]

Summerson, HRT, ‘Robert de Vieuxpont’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, 2004) [subscription required; accessed 2 January 2015]

Thompson, WW, ‘A Roman inscription found at Brough-under-Stainmore’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, old series, 5 (1881), 285–90

Woolliscroft, DJ and Lockett, NJ, ‘Finds from Verterae, the Roman fort of Brough’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 96 (1996), 230–33

Wright RP, ‘Summary of evidence from Brough’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 47 (1947), 199ff

Wright, RP, ‘A new leaden sealing from York, and further examples from Brough-under-Stainmore’, Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, new series, 54 (1954), 102–4


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