Early Tudor forces were essentially medieval. Those that fought the Scots at Flodden (1513) and the French in northern France (1511–13) did so mainly with traditional pole weapons – ‘bills’ – and the still formidable longbows.

Unlike their predecessors, however, the English and their enemies had powerful artillery. Scots guns pulverised Norham Castle, Northumberland, before Flodden and Henry VIII used siege guns to great effect in France. Personal firearms were used mainly by foreign mercenaries. They were more costly, slower-shooting and less effective than a longbow in the hands of an experienced archer.


Henry VIII’s aggressive foreign policy took locally raised militia abroad to fight alongside specialist mercenaries.

In 1544 at least 38,000 men went to France, then the largest ever English expeditionary force. In the same period Henry deployed 5,500 men along the borders and in southern Scotland during the ‘Rough Wooing’ (1543–50) – Henry VIII’s attempt to force the marriage of his son Edward to the infant Mary, Queen of Scots. Though neither venture proved successful, they provided valuable tactical experience with siege artillery, in logistics, and in combined operations between army and navy.

By 1547, English forces were slowly equipping with new personal firearms, which could be operated by less sturdy men (and after briefer training) than longbow archers. Bronze and wrought-iron artillery was commonplace, and a few cast-iron pieces were appearing on land and in warships.

Most importantly, by the end of his reign Henry VIII had built a powerful Navy Royal of warships, purpose-built to carry heavy guns, as his first line of defence against invasion. This included the ill-fated Mary Rose which sank in 1545 during an action against the French fleet in the Solent.


England dramatically increased its martial readiness during war with Spain (1585–1604), although home defences and militia were not tested during the Armada crises of 1588 and 1597. Spanish warships of 1588 were outmanoeuvred by the better-designed and well-handled English ships and their experienced captains such as Hawkins, Frobisher and Drake, with their longer-range guns, rapid rate of fire and more effective shot.

By this time, reliable cast-iron guns were becoming available from workshops in the Kent–Sussex Weald.


Simultaneously, English forces stood alongside the Dutch in their struggle against Spain, and with the French against Spanish encroachments. They raided Spanish colonies in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico and fought rebellions in Ireland.

All this fighting meant that local militia were continually drafted (especially to Ireland) and new weapons and tactics were employed. Matchlock muskets and calivers replaced longbows and were used in combination with the long pike, which gradually replaced the bill. Tactically, much fighting was small-scale, consisting of surprise attacks and siege warfare, with few large battles.


By 1500 the English were familiar with gunpowder artillery. Older castles and newer fortified houses incorporated positions for small guns, as at Berry Pomeroy, Devon, and Kirby Muxloe, Leicestershire. Prosperous towns built gun towers, notably along Southampton’s walls (15th-century) and at Dartmouth, Devon (1490s).

This local trend continued slowly, with gun towers and bulwarks at, for example, Camber, East Sussex (1512), St Catherine's Castle, Fowey, Cornwall (about 1520), Bayard's Cove (Dartmouth, 1530s) and under royal control at Berwick-upon-Tweed (1520s–30s).


Henry VIII developed a national policy for defence between 1539 and 1547 against the possibility of an invasion by powerful Catholic forces in Europe.

He built over 30 new gun forts which, working with increasingly powerful warships, were designed to prevent the capture of harbours and estuaries along the east and south coasts. The defences included small artillery ‘blockhouses’, as at Gravesend, and large forts with precise circular designs – examples survive at Pendennis and St Mawes in Cornwall, Portland in Dorset, Hurst and Calshot in Hampshire, Camber in Sussex, and Deal and Walmer in Kent. With characteristic squat and rounded forms, they were designed to provide massive all-round offensive and defensive firepower.


Though they proved to be a dead end in fortress design, Henry’s forts served as formidable obstacles for many years. He also experimented with what became the dominant fortress system for the next 300 years – the angle bastion – which had evolved in Italy by 1500 and spread northwards. The first English example survives at Yarmouth (1547) on the Isle of Wight.

While Upnor Castle in Kent (1559) was of outdated design, several powerful fortresses employing multiple angle bastions were built under Elizabeth I, notably at Berwick-upon-Tweed (1553–1570), Carisbrooke, on the Isle of Wight (1587–1602), and Pendennis (1597–1600). Designed to resist determined siege, and influenced by European fortifications, they reflect the confidence of English engineers to adapt them at home.


The ships of the English fleet were smaller than those of the Spanish Armada …

Wrong! In truth, some English ships were as large as or larger than those of the Spanish. Many were of the same type – galleons – that had first developed in Spain. The differences lay in the English refinements that made the ships sleeker, more manoeuvrable and able to carry a heavier armament of guns. These ‘race-built’ ships formed a stable platform for the ‘stand-off’ gunnery tactics employed by the English.