History of Birdoswald Roman Fort
Birdoswald’s history began when a wooded spur was cleared for the building of Hadrian’s Wall in AD 122. The fort, added to the Wall shortly afterwards, was garrisoned by an infantry cohort of over 800 men and remained in occupation throughout the Roman period. Its defences are the best preserved of any along the Wall. The fort was reoccupied in the Middle Ages and was the target of raids by border reivers in the 16th century.
Building the Wall and Fort
To the west of the river Irthing Hadrian’s Wall was at first built of turf. In this sector the regular fortlets known as milecastles were built of turf and timber, while the turrets between them were of stone.
At Birdoswald the builders of the turf Wall had to clear woodland and drain a small bog before construction could start. A ditched and palisaded camp for the builders is the earliest evidence for occupation on the site, and pieces of leather tent were found in its ditches.
The fort was built astride the Wall, which, along with one of the stone turrets (no. 49a), was partially demolished to accommodate it. The fort may have begun as a turf and timber construction, but this phase was not completed and a stone fort was begun instead. At 2.14 hectares it was one of the larger forts on Hadrian’s Wall.
Birdoswald’s Dacian Garrison
After the Antonine interlude Birdoswald was fully occupied, probably by the military unit that remained there throughout the 3rd and 4th centuries. This was cohors Prima Aelia Dacorum (the first cohort of Dacians, Hadrian’s own, 1,000 strong unit), recruited from what is now Romania.
Two surviving inscriptions recording the presence of the Dacians at Birdoswald include reliefs of the typical curved sword of the Dacians (falx), together with a palm frond. One of these inscriptions commemorates the building of a granary in AD 205–8 in collaboration with a Thracian cohort and under the command of the tribune Aurelius Julianus. During his time at Birdoswald Julianus lost his infant son, Aurelius Concordius, who was commemorated on a tombstone at the fort cemetery. The second inscription, illustrated here, records building work at the main east gate in AD 219.
The cohort is recorded in a series of 23 altars to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, five other religious inscriptions, one tombstone and one building stone. The examples that can be dated span the entire 3rd century, after which the habit of making inscriptions on stone declined across the whole frontier.
One of the most important recent discoveries on Hadrian’s Wall has been that some forts continued to be occupied beyond the ‘end of Roman Britain’ in the early 5th century.
Some of the best evidence for this comes from Birdoswald where, on the site of the Roman granaries, a series of hall-type buildings was found. At first these reused the southern granary but later, when this became unviable, two phases of free-standing wooden buildings were erected on the site of the north granary.
It is clear that this occupation continued without a break from the late Roman period, marking a radical change in the life of the fort after the collapse of the Roman administration and economy. The Roman military unit, already subject to late Roman local recruitment and hereditary service, perhaps became more akin to a war band, possibly even a small local chiefdom, whose members would have continued to regard themselves as ‘Roman’.
This development is similar to that seen at the Roman town of Wroxeter, Shropshire.
By the 16th century the west gate had collapsed, and a typical border bastle house was built within the walls of the Roman fort. Bastle houses had space for animals on the ground floor and accommodation above, acting as fortified farmhouses during the intense phase of raiding on the borders by the so-called ‘reivers’.
This house was occupied by the Tweddle family, who complained to the Warden of the West March on three known occasions, twice in 1588 and again in 1590, following raids from the reiving families of Elliot, Nixon and Armstrong, when large numbers of cattle were stolen. It was at this dangerous time that Birdoswald received its first antiquarian visitor, Reginald Bainbrigg, in 1599.
From this time the names of owners of the site and their visitors are well recorded, and by 1849 the site was owned by Henry Norman. He created much of the Birdoswald we see today by excavating the fort walls and gates, and by building the tower on the existing farmhouse.
About the Author
Tony Wilmott, a Senior Archaeologist at Historic England, has excavated at Birdoswald Roman Fort and is a leading authority on Hadrian’s Wall. He is the author of the English Heritage Red Guide to Birdoswald.