Lullingstone Roman Villa and the Darent Valley
Reconstruction drawing of Lullingstone Roman Villa, Kent, in its 4th-century landscape

Interactive Map: Lullingstone Roman Villa and the Darent Valley

Lullingstone Roman Villa sits within the Darent Valley in Kent, an area full of Roman archaeology. The maps below highlight the strong links between Lullingstone Roman Villa and its local landscape, supporting teachers and students to explore the social history of Roman Kent.

This resource will be of particular interest to National Curriculum Key Stage 2 students studying the Romans and Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3 students undertaking their Local History Study.


Settlements and Buildings

A guide to the Roman settlements and buildings found in the Darent Valley.

Settlements and Buildings
  • Settlements and Buildings

    A guide to the Roman settlements and buildings found in the Darent Valley.

Geographical Features and Landscape
  • Geographical Features and Landscape

    An exploration of the geographical features in the Darent Valley landscape.

Industry, Crafts and Skills
  • Industry, Crafts and Skills

    Evidence of Roman industry, crafts and skills in the Darent Valley.

  • Archaeology

    Archaeological techniques and findings in the Darent Valley.


Below is a list of words you might come across while exploring Lullingstone Roman Villa and the Darent Valley. Use this Glossary to find out what they mean.

  • Definitions

    amphora(e) – a tall ancient Greek or Roman jar or jug with two long handles and a narrow neck for pouring. Amphorae were brought to Britain as a storage method (like plastic crates carrying food today). They usually carried wine or oil.

    archaeologist – a person who excavates (carefully digs) places and then studies artefacts ad remains to work out what they can tell us about the time they are from

    archaeology - the discovery of history through excavation (careful digging) and study of artefacts and other remains

    artefact(s) – an object made by a person that can be used as evidence of a time in history

    bath suite - a collection of rooms dedicated to bathing. There were public baths but wealthy Romans could afford bathing facilities in their own homes, as at Lullingstone.

    Bellerophon – the son of Poseidon (God of the Sea) and a mortal hero in Greek mythology. When he was young, he honoured the gods and won their favour, but eventually his pride led to his downfall.

    chalk – a white, soft, earthy limestone (calcium carbonate) which makes up most of the ground in the Darent Valley

    Chimera – in Greek mythology, a fire-breathing she-monster of Lycia in Asia Minor, composed of the parts of more than one animal

    Chi-Rho - an early Christian symbol formed by the first two letters of Christ’s name in Greek, chi (χ) and rho (ρ).

    Christian – a person who is baptised or/and is a believer in Christianity, the religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus Christ

    classical – used to describe ancient Greek or Roman literature, art or culture

    cremation – the act of burning a body with flames after death to reduce it to small pieces of bone

    estate(s) – an area of land or property

    Europa – a beautiful maiden of high lineage in Greek mythology, most notable for her love affair with Zeus, the ruler of the Olympian gods. He notices her beauty and disguises himself as a white bull. Once she has climbed on the bull’s back, he charges away and kidnaps her.

    excavation – removing earth carefully to find archaeological remains

    farmstead – the name given to a farm, which includes all of its buildings and surrounding land

    frieze - a decorated band of plaster used along a wall

    geophysical surveys – physical sensing techniques used to create images or maps of archaeological sites underground

    governor – an official appointed to govern a town or region

    granary - a storehouse for grain

    hearth - the floor of a fireplace      

    House-church – applied to Christian worship, a room in a private home used for prayer and worship

    industry – the activity around processing raw (natural) materials and making products

    Latin – the language used in the Roman Empire

    livestock – animals that are kept on a farm such as cows, pigs, sheep and chickens

    maker's mark – the personal mark of a craftsman. These can be carved, stamped, or painted onto an object to distinguish which craftsman was involved in its creation.

    marble bust – a representation of the upper part of the human figure, carved into marble to create the likeness of an often important individual

    mausoleum - a free-standing building, a form of tomb, which enclosed the burial chamber of a deceased person or people

    Pegasus – a flying horse in Greek mythology, usually depicted as white in colour. His father was Poseidon (God of the Sea) and his mother was Medusa.

    pottery – pots, dishes, and other items made of clay that is fired (heated at a very hot temperature) to make it hard

    Roman – relating to ancient Rome, the Roman Empire, or its people

    Roman Empire – the countries that were ruled by the Roman emperor

    Roman mythology – a collection of stories, beliefs and rituals that the Romans used to understand and describe the origin of Roman civilisation, culture, history and religion. Heavily inspired by Greek mythology.

    sacred – having some special religious importance, often dedicated to a god or gods

    settlement – a place where people arrive and build a community

    temple – a building devoted to the worship of god or gods

    trade – buying and selling goods or jobs

    trench(es) - a long, narrow ditch

    villa – originally a Latin term which meant ‘farm’. The term ‘villa’ can refer more widely to any Roman house.


A 3D scan image of an orange ceramic bowl with a bat head decoration on the front. The bat's head has an open mouth with a hole in.

Explore the Collection

We've created 3D scans of some of the objects found at Lullingstone Roman Villa to help you explore life in Roman Kent. 

Take a closer look at bowls, jars, pawprints, axle caps and more at home or in the classroom. 

View the 3D images

Link Your Learning

ENGLISH - Find out more about life in Roman Kent by exploring the maps and write a newspaper interview with someone living at a villa or settlement in the Darent Valley during the Roman period. Include details about where they live, the job they do and what their daily life is like. 

SCIENCE - Research the different animals found in the Darent Valley in Roman times and today using the Geographical Features and Landscape map. Choose a species and outline the features and characteristics it has that makes it well-suited to it's natural environment or its work on a Roman farm.

MATHS - Become more familiar with Roman numerals. Challenge a partner by swapping simple sums or more complex problems, substituting in Roman numerals for each of the numbers to test your learning.

GEOGRAPHY - Reflect on the locations of archaeological sites in the Darent Valley. Are there particular features that the Romans wanted to build their villas near to or away from? You could also compare the geography of Roman Kent and the geographical features found in Kent today. How have roads, farms and settlements changed over time? 

ART AND DESIGN - Use the architectural features and interior decorations that archaeologists have found in the Darent Valley to design your own Roman room or villa. You could use the images, reconstructions and plans within the Settlements and Buildings map to help you.

DRAMA - Search the Industry, Crafts and Skills map to find out more about different jobs in Roman Kent. You could research particular roles and act these out in a short performance, freeze frame or mime. 


Visiting Lullingstone Roman Villa

Bring the Romans to life during a school trip to Lullingstone Roman Villa. During a free self-led visit you can find out more about the mosaics, artefacts and villa remains on display.

Our expert-led Discovery Visit session is a great way to delve deeper into the history of the villa and find out more about the people who lived and worked there, through role play and object handling.

Find Out More

Our Partnership

English Heritage and the Darent Valley Landscape Partnership Scheme (DVLPS) have worked together to create this interactive resource with support from the National Lottery Heritage Fund.

The Darent Valley Landscape Partnership Scheme is a Kent Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) project. It aims to conserve and enhance the distinctive heritage landscape of the Darent Valley and reconnect people with this unique landscape.

Other Useful Links

You can find out more about the Darent Valley during the Roman period and other heritage sites in Kent in the following places: 

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