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Answer: (As far as we know) 1314, following a proclamation of Edward II, who wanted to maintain peace and good order while he was away fighting the Scots. Notably, 1314 was also the year of his disastrous defeat at Bannockburn.
Answer: Eyres. The name comes from the Latin verb ‘errare’, ‘to wander’. By extension, this Latin word can also mean ‘to make a mistake’ because the person making this mistake has wandered away from the right path (or as we say in English has ‘made an error’). People who knew Latin in the twelfth century very much enjoyed making this pun at the expense of the ‘justices of error’.